The Second Golden Age of Dutch Science, 1850-1914

Recently, much attention has been devoted to what has become known as the ‘Second Golden Age’ of Dutch science, which is placed roughly between 1870 and 1920 . This periode is marked by frenetic scientific activity in the Netherlands, certainly when compared to the half-century before. Two reasons for this upsurge have been forwarded. The first one is that in 1863 and 1876, two education laws provided the ‘logistics’ for the raising of a new scientific élite. Although this cause may be specific to the Netherlands, it also enabled the scientific community in the Netherlands to make the most of the international tendency towards professionalisation and specialisation in science. If we look at science at an international level, we may also see a nationalistic element enter the discussion. Others, most notably Henk te Velde, have written about the way in which the Dutch liberals perceived education as a means to further nationalism, or more properly the national sentiment which they had found sadly lacking . In other countries, the fruits of science had been welcomed as support to national development, as the ultimate manifestation of the national identity, or simply as a boost to national self-esteem . The Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute may serve as an indicator of this phenomenon:
“Just like the Großstaat and Großindustrie, Großwissenschaft has shown itself to be an indispensable element of our cultural development, of which the Academies are or should be the legitimate guardians”

The Nobel Prizes, which were awarded with a one-year interval from 1901 on, only enhanced this effect. Conversely, this had a stimulating effect on the prestige of the prizes themselves. When looking at the context of these developments, it seems clear that the social esteem of science was internationally perceived to be very high. As one example I refer to the great number of novels published around the turn of the century which feature scientists as their main characters and heroes.


The Netherlands were no exception. As others have pointed out, the increase in public spending on behalf of science could only have taken place if social support for such activities was sufficient to make it politically acceptable . Although it would be problematic to view the mounting interest and important of science in the Netherlands exclusively as a manifestation of nationalism, there was the idea that to maintain its international position, the Netherlands could not afford to fall back in the scientific ‘arms race’, if only to maintain an edge in manufacture and industry.


The growing interest in science can also be seen in the history of many scientific societies in the Netherlands, many of which existed since the eighteenth century. The first half of the nineteenth century had been a difficult period for most of them, and they were regarded by many as outdated. However, from approximately 1860 onwards there is an unmistakeable growth of interest in these organisations; in that year, there were 89 scientific and cultural societies in the Netherlands; fifty years later their number had risen to 114 . The role of these societies was multi-faceted. They served, among others, as a facilitory organisation to scientists, as a meeting place between scientists and the educated public, as a vehicle for publication, and often as the keeper of scientific collections. Many societies had actively contributed to the turn in their fate, for instance by restructuring their organisation, by incorporating new scientific approaches or by turning to ways of stimulating research that were less outmoded.


The question is in which way the general rise of scientific activity and the blossoming of these societies relate to one another. This outline seeks to examine the relation between those two phenomena. To this end, the choice has been made to devote a closer examination to six scientific societies in the Netherlands, to look at their composition, their staffing, their methods in stimulating research, and their treatment of a selection of topics that would have been current at the time, both in scientific and public opinion.
The importance of the social attitude towards science, if only for reasons of public funding, has already been stressed above. These societies provided one forum for contact between public opinion and the scientific world, and were therefore of great interest to the scientific community.

Choices

The chosen timeframe runs from the 1850s, which saw a turnaround in thinking about the way of scientific pursuit, to 1914, a year which marks at least a temporary end to scientific internationalism but which also ended much of its underlying positivism.


There are certain obvious choices to be made when we look at the societies themselves. The Genootschap ter bevordering van Natuur-, Genees- en Heelkunde in Amsterdam, and Teylers Tweede Genootschap in Haarlem were among the oldest and largest in the country. In the case of Teyler there is the additional importance of its collections. The Provinciaal Utrechtsch Genootschap was chosen for its scientific prestige, but also for the reason that it is somewhat remote from the former two, and one can expect that the degree of personal overlap is not too great.


In the late nineteenth century geography was still a factor to be reckoned with, and it would be interesting to see if and how the composition of a society in a relatively isolated city like Groningen would differ from those in the west of the country. Of course, Groningen is a university town, and as such shows a concentration of scientists. In a city like Leeuwarden, the social component of society activities will predictably have been higher than in Groningen, while experiencing the same amount of geographic isolation. Aditionally, the Leeuwarden case will aid us in making a proper assessment of the cultural importance and prestige of science in a non-scientifically oriented community.


The last choice, the Natuur- en Geneeskundig Congres is not a society in the proper sense, but it does represent a new form of communicating scientific information in the form of bi-annual meetings among virtually exclusively professional scientists.

Topics

The size of the scientific community in the Netherlands around 1890 has been estimated at around one thousand . This includes all scientific disciplines, from medicine to physics. Logically, the composition of a society will have been crucial for the direction of its activities. Geology has always been a well-represented at Teyler’s, the Genootschap ter Bevordering [etc.] has always had a high intake of physicians and surgeons. The social origin of members will also be important: it will give us insight into the status of scientific research, and in the distribution of scientific information and interest.


Another useful topic, and one that adresses the function of the societies themselves, is the way in which they attempted to stimulate scientific activities. For example, many societies stopped issueing competitions in favour of awarding medals of honour. This appears to have meant that they could not expect a similar effort from those scientists that had formerly been willing to subject themselves to the long and arduous process of a porno competition. A survey of reforms in this area may help to determine the shifting relation between the scientific community and the societies.

a) Natural History
In the late nineteenth century, the field of natural history received a strong impetus from the public controversy over Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species. This controversy also touched the Netherlands, although its intensity never opproached that of the Anglo-Saxon countries or Sweden . However, apart from these theoretical (and often theological) issues, the private study of nature, in its narrow sense, also became increasingly more popular. For these reasons, I believe the field of natural history will present a welcome case to compare public and scientific attitudes, and study the ways in which these were confronted in societies.


b) Anaesthetics
Around the middle of the nineteenth century, important progress in the relief of pain among patients was made when the American surgeon William Morton succeeded in applying ether to gain general narcosis. Previous methods, varying from a hard hit on the head to the supply of generous amounts of alcohol, had proved hazardous at best, but the use of ether, and later chloroform, gave physicians a working solution. However, this method was still far from secure, and much debate and controversy was devoted to ways in which a secure narcosis could be obtained. The state of technology, not only of narcotics, but also of application equipment, was very important in this development. Much as in the case of natural history, this matter carried great public appeal, but of a far more practical nature: it helped immensely in increasing public confidence in the medical profession. Aditionally, this was a topic with political content. ‘Hygienists’, proponents of a more scientific and professional approach to medicine, had been active since the 1850s in an attempt to make public health a matter of political interest.

c) Third choice
Both of the subjects treated above were also widely discussed in the public sphere. Therefore it could prove useful to choose as our third topic one that was investigated mainly or exclusively in scientific circles. One such topic is that of theoretical physics. Here we have a subject which is generally incomprehensible without a certain degree of specialised training. This may be of use in determining if and to what degree scientists were able to use the societies as a means of communication with each other and the public, and to which degree that same public was able or willing to master the deeper-lying aspects of science.


With these thoughts I hope to have offered sufficient material for a thorough study of scientific societies in the Netherlands around the turn of the century.

Pakistan and Afghanistan: Opportunities and Challenges in the Wake of the Current Crisis

Background

This upcoming event builds upon recent meetings and discussions hosted by different organizations, including a dialogue organized by PAKNET, a World Bank staff association, in early October, 2001.

Since then, a large number of internal and external groups have expressed an interest in the substance of the dialogue. The current initiative attempts to open up the discussion to the larger community. The moderators and sponsors of the discussion welcome scholars, historians, social scientists, students and practitioners of development, and other active community members who would like to share their knowledge and insights to help achieve a deeper understanding of the situation.

This electronic discussion is sponsored by: The George Washington University Department of Public Administration; the GWU Center for the Study of Globalization; the Community Empowerment and Social Inclusion Program (WBIKL); and the Knowledge Sharing Program (WBIKL).
Objectives

The discussion aims to:
1. increase knowledge and understanding of the situation in Afghanistan and Pakistan;
2. improve the appreciation of perspectives of different actors;
3. enhance understanding of the roots and branches (causes and effects) of the current situation; and,
4. analyze the complexities, along with the opportunities and challenges for both countries, and a realistic view of the way forward.
Structure and Contents

The discussion is organized in three portions of 9 -10 days each. Each portion will be led by an invited moderator who will make a first contribution to set the stage for the discussion, and make other inputs as necessary. Key features of the situation that are expected to cut across all discussion components are the linkages and overlaps between social, political, and economic development.

Each portion of the discussion will be guided by a question from the following set of questions related to the current crisis. By ‘crisis’ we refer to the attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001; the ensuing ‘War on Terrorism’ by a coalition led by the United States, and its effects on Afghanistan and Pakistan (e.g. internal displacement, refugees, hunger, destruction, division and conflict in society, economic fall out, and loss of life).

Part One of the discussion will consider the question: How did we get here?

Discussion of this topic will focus on the root causes of the current situation in Afghanistan and Pakistan. It will include a discussion of the historical context; the different actors, internal and external; and their interests and inter-relationships over time.

Part Two will consider the question: What are the implications of this crisis on the economic, social, and political development of Pakistan and Afghanistan?
How are the root causes and the historical context reflected in what is happening now? The discussion will also consider the complexities of reconstruction and development in a pre and post-conflict situation.

Part Three will consider the question: Where do we go from here?

What do the current events mean for the future of Pakistan and Afghanistan? What are the key challenges and main opportunities in the given situation? Discussion of this topic will focus on realistic ideas for moving forward, considering the intertwined history of Pakistan and Afghanistan, and their current state of economic, social, and political development. How can these three порно dimensions of development be addressed adequately? Who can play what roles? Should respective efforts be sequential? Simultaneous? Which approaches would be desirable? Which are possible?

Last publications about renovable energies

Small and Medium scale Industries in Asia:
Energy and Environment
Desiccated Coconut Sector
S. Kumar and C. Visvanathan, 2002 
ISBN 974-8208-47-8, 73 pp., 17 x 23 cm, paper-bound
US$ 15 (inclusive of air-mailing delivery service)

This report is based on research conducted on the desiccated coconut sector in the Philippines and Sri Lanka and details the production processes, specific energy consumption, technology status, and the important energy and environmental issues related to the sector. The report highlights the production and operational practices of pollution generation. It also provides energy efficient and environmentally sound technological (E3ST) options specific to this sector and presents the barriers in promoting E3ST. This report is useful to policy personnel and government agencies involved in SMI, energy and environment; industrial organizations; researchers as well as other industries. A comparison volume discusses the policy to promote E3ST in the study countries.

Contents: 1. Overview of the DC sector; 2. DC production process; 3. Energy issues of the DC sector; 4. Environmental issues of the DC sector; 5. Energy efficient and environmentally sound technological options for the DC sector; Bibliography; Appendices and video porno.

Small and Medium scale Industries in Asia:
Energy and Environment
Policy Interventions to Promote Energy Efficient and Environmentally Sound Technologies in SMI
S. Kumar and C. Visvanathan, 2002
ISBN 974-8209-01-6, 59 pp., 17 x 23 cm, paper-bound
US$ 15 (inclusive of air-mailing delivery service)

This report is based on research done in view of the growing significance of SMI in energy and environmental issues. The study was conducted to develop a framework of policy instruments and strategies needed to promote energy efficient and environmentally sound technologies (E3ST) in China, India, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam for the desiccated coconut, foundry, tea, textile, and brick and ceramic sectors. An overview of SMI sector in the study countries; national policies on economy, energy and environment; trends in energy consumption and environmental impacts in the study countries; and policy instruments to promote E3ST in the SMI sector, are included. This report is useful to policy personnel and government agencies involved in SMI, energy and environment; industrial organizations; and researchers. 

Contents: 1. Overview of the SMI sector; 2. National policies on economy, energy and environment; 3. Trends in industrial energy consumption and environmental impacts in the study countries; 4. Policy instruments to promote E3ST in the SMI sector; Bibliography; Appendices.
Renewable Energy Technologies in Asia:
Highlights of Research and Dissemination in Selected Countries
S.C. Bhattacharya and S. Kumar, 2002
ISBN 974-8208-43-5, 14 pp.,
14.75 x 21 cm, paper-bound
US$ 8 (inclusive of air-mailing delivery service)

This booklet presents brief highlights of the adaptive research, demonstration, capacity enhancement, dissemination and impact of the Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) in Asia program in the participating countries. RETs in Asia promotes selected mature and nealy mature renewable energy technologies including photovoltaics (PV), solar drying, and biomass briquetting/briquette stoves. Six Asian countries namely Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Nepal, the Philippines and Vietnam have participated in the program.

Contents: 1. Background; 2. Adaptive research and demonstration of renewable energy technologies; 3. Capacity enhancement and technology transfer; 4. Dissemination and impacts.

The Birth and Evolution of Electric Cars

Electric cars are not a recent technical innovation. In fact, they have a long illustrious history that dates back to early nineteenth century.  Nobody knows who was the first inventor of electric car; but it is said that the first small scale electric car was invented in 1828. Ányos István Jedlik, a Hungarian, invented an early type of electric motor, created a tiny model car powered by his new motor.

Few years later, in 1834-35 Vermont blacksmith Thomas Davenport developed a battery-powered electric motor. He operated a small-model car on a short section of track with those batteries, making way for the later electrification of streetcars. Like Davenport, another Scotsmen Robert Davidson, around 1842, was the first to use the newly invented but non-rechargeable electric cells or batteries. The years between 1832 and 1839 witnessed the invention of the first crude electric carriage powered by non-rechargeable primary cells at the hands of Scottish inventor Robert Anderson.

Professor Sibrandus Stratingh of Groningen, the Netherlands and his assistant Christopher Becker created a small-scale electrical car, powered by non-rechargeable primary cells in 1835; using the physical principles developed by the British Michael Faraday, Stratingh and Becker constructed an electric cart which was the prototype of the electric cars to come in the future.

In 1859, French physicist Gaston Planté invented the rechargeable lead-acid storage battery. A fellow countryman Camille Faure, in 1881, improved the storage battery’s ability to supply current and invent the basic lead-acid battery used in automobiles.

A Belgian, Camille Jénatzy had designed an electric racing car called “La Jamais Contente”, in 1899 which set a world record for land speed of 68 mph. The debut of the first successful electric automobile is credited to an American chemist named William Morrison of Des Moines, Iowa.

In 1891 he built a self-propelled six-passenger vehicle capable of a top speed of 14 miles per hour which was little more than an electrified wagon, but it helped spark interests in electric vehicles in the late 1890s and early 1900s. It was a sensation at the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair, which was also known as the famed “World’s Columbian Exhibition.”

As a matter of fact Morrison’s design had been considered to be the first practical design of an electric vehicle. Americans began to show interest in electric vehicles not until 1895.  Early in the year 1897, the first fleet of electric taxis hit the streets of New York. The Connecticut Pope Manufacturing Company became one of the first large-scale American electric automobile manufacturer, along with the Electric Carriage and Wagon Company of Philadelphia. In the year 1899, Thomas Alva Edison believed that electricity will run automobiles in future, it became his mission to create a more durable battery for commercial vehicles, but he abandoned his project a decade later into this project.

The first practical electric automobile starter was invented by Charles Kettering in 1912. The 60s and 70s saw many attempts to produce practical electric vehicles. It was in 1960 that the Boyertown Auto Body Works jointly formed the Battronic Truck Company with Smith Delivery Vehicles, Ltd., of England and the Exide Division of the Electric Battery Company. The first Battronic electric truck was delivered to the Potomac Edison Company in 1964. A speed of 25 mph, a range of 62 miles and a payload of 2,500 pounds were among the capabilities of this truck.

In 1972, the “Godfather of the Hybrid,” Victor Wouk,  built the first full-powered, full-size hybrid vehicle out of a 1972 Buick Skylark provided by General Motors (G.M.) for the 1970 Federal Clean Car Incentive Program. Sebring-Vanguard produced over 2,000 “CitiCars.” These cars had a top speed of 44 mph, a normal cruise speed of 38 mph and a range of 50 to 60 miles. While,  Elcar Corporation’s the “Elcar” clocked a top speed of 45 mph, and a range of 60 miles. The electric United States Postal Service delivery jeeps had a top speed of 50 mph and a range of 40 miles at a speed of 40 mph, along with heating and defrosting achieved with a gas heater and the recharge time was 10 hours. Around 350 of them were purchased by the U.S Postal Services from the American Motor Company to be used in a test program in 1975. All these innovations gradually paved the way for more advanced models of electric cars. For example, in 2006, Tesla Motors manufactured the ultra-sporty Tesla Roadster, the first production all-electric car to travel more than 200 miles (320 km) per charge.

Fast forwarding to 2017, there are a number of big names in car manufacturing are competing with each other to build the most efficient electric car. For instance, Faraday Future’s FF 91 SUV, is set to compete with the Tesla Model X and be one of the fastest accelerating cars on the market, which a claimed zero to 60mph time of 2.39secs, making it around 0.5secs faster than Elon Musk’s Tesla Model X. Thus, how electric cars have evolved from the early 1800s into their much improved sleeker avatars of 2017.

Optimization process

Optimization occurs on many fronts with an overall objective to improve efficiency and accuracy thought an enterprise. All areas of increased optimization have a direct contribution to reduce operational and maintenance costs.

A major part of the optimization process includes study services that focus on utilization of existing technology and infrastructures to be sure the systems are used to achieve the maximum efficacy and therefore reducing up-front optimization capital costs.

Some areas where most existing SCADA systems can immediately gain efficiency are:

  • Integrated Data Acquisition and Reporting
  • Process Automation
  • Internet/Intranet web technology
  • Laboratory Information Management Software (LIMS)
  • Maintenance Software Integration (CMMS)

Integrated Data Acquisition and Reporting
Integrating embedded technology of SCADA systems with database and intranet technology can save a great amount of time. The fact is that many enterprises are made up of many different business units that need to share operational data. Many times this information is collected and or reported by the SCADA system of porno casero in a raw format. The operations personnel then will complete operational log sheets and bench test data for later compilation to some type of reporting summary. This is the data format that is shared with the other business units as well reported to regulatory agencies. In most cases, these log sheets are in some type of spreadsheet format like MS Excel and have to be compiled to create a report on some interval basis. This takes time, sometimes allot of it.

Although this process works to achieve operational reporting requirements on a regular basis, going back in time to analyze data over some time period can simply be a nightmare. Often times business units need to analyze data over time and may ask operations to provide them with some aggregated data over some time period greater then one reporting interval. The operations staff has to review many spreadsheets or past reports to compile the requested data. For more information manual data acquisition, see our Excel Automation page.

With the integration of embedded SCADA technology and database and/or web technology, a lot of the areas can be automated to gain great operational efficiency and optimization. With some review of operational procedures and flow of data, a viable and expandable solution can be integrated to greatly increase your enterprise’s optimization.

For many systems; usually local, state, and federal forms and reports can be compiled automatically from manually entered data and historical SCADA data while allowing required personell to administrate all data and compiled reports.

Process Automation
The fact is that all manufacturing and processing enterprises can increase efficacy through increased automation. Manufacturing and processing systems rely on many distributed processes to work together to achieve a final product of certain quality and with the best efficiency. This requires close coordination between different process operations with sometime required close watch of process variable to achieve desired quality. Also, scheduling plays a big role in hitting efficiency targets.

Through automation, different processes can be linked and operational activities automated to free up operators to address other tasks and reduce overall workload. Also, using historical data and analysis tools, efficiency can be analyzed and tracked. This are can also identify problem areas that quickly that affect overall efficiency.

Internet/Intranet web technology
Using Intranet/Internet web technology can greatly increase efficiency of the entire enterprise. Integrating a web server with SCADA and other data acquisition activities, data can be interactively shared among an unlimited number of users with out any user software or configuration requirements. By using a web server to serve you enterprise through intranet or serve the public, this optimization is invaluable. Real-time and historical data can be monitored and analyzed by any authorized number of users simultaneously.

Integrated with today’s mobile and wireless technology, web and database programming is the ultimate solution. For example, a plant supervisor can be notified on his cell phone via text messaging or e-mail when a problem is occurring. He can then go to his PC at home and review all real-time and historical data securely over the Internet.

This configuration usually does not include the means of real time SCADA control for security reasons, however control is possible with proper configuration. However, all administrative data QA/QC can be done by authorized personnel via the internet.

Laboratory Information Management Software (LIMS)
In many processes, there are analytical tests that must be performed by personnel. These tests enable the process authority to comply with quality control and regulatory requirements. An extensive amount of data tracking and control is required.

As a result, various Laboratory Information Management Software systems have become available to aid in this data management and have proven to be a great tool for any enterprise.

The key to any great LIMS system is its proper integration. There are many off the shelf LIMS products available but choosing software is not in any case all that is required. Quality engineering and information integration makes up a very large part of any LIMS integration. Quality engineering involving a complete understanding of your laboratory process and comprehensive knowledge of online instrumentation and data acquisition are a must. In order to optimize the return on your LIMS investment 7you must invest in its proper integration.

Icproe offers a comprehensive LIMS integration service that includes all engineering and integration services required to successfully integrate your new LIMS solution. We will work with you to determine the scope of the objectives and provide study-engineering services to compile clear integration specifications using your feedback and review of budgetary/schedule information.

With objectives clearly specified, Icproe will then work to integrate a total turn- key solution. This may include various methods of procurement and execution depending on our client, but the result is always clear. Our clients will receive exactly what they are expecting at the highest quality in execution and integration.

Icproe can provide the total turn-key integration or help you to procure all products and services. We provide high quality engineering specification and contract administration services for all our projects. Where various laws for procurement are applicable and we are hired for contract / bid administration services, the same standards apply to all contractors and sub contractors.

Instrumentation and controls professional engineering and construction

ICPROE offers a full range of design, application and value engineering study services. All projects at some level need these services for successful execution. These study services are used internally as well as for external client projects.

Our clients include owners, contractors, value and design Engineering firms as well as many others. They use our study services to obtain the highest quality and comprehensive engineering reports possible. We use the same expert services internally to contribute to the success of every project we participate in.

  • Construct ability analysis
  • Independent design review
  • Cost-benefit analysis
  • Failure risk assessment
  • Security and vulnerability
  • Laboratory, operational and enterprise data flow analysis
  • Instrumentation, controls and SCADA upgrade needs assessments
  • Capital improvement justification
  • Communications/telemetry
  • Expert witness
  • Maintenance Software Integration (CMMS)

As a completely integrated design-application engineering and construction firm, ICPROE offers a comprehensive set of engineering design services.

Integrating instrumentation and controls design engineering with application engineering services sets ICPROE apart from the rest. The ability to directly coordinate between the process, instrumentation and application engineers during design helps ICPROE to deliver the highest quality.

  • Instrumentation, Information, and Control System Design
  • Machine/Process/Facility instrumentation and automation design
  • SCADA and information systems design and application engineering
  • SCADA/PLC/HMI/Data acquisition and reporting configuration
  • Laboratory information management
  • Maintenance data management
  • Intranet/Internet real-time and historical data enabled web applications
  • Enterprise/WAN data acquisition and reporting
  • Communications
  • Local and remote facility communications design and site survey services: Ethernet / Fiber / Radio / Satellite/ Cellular/ Leased Line/ Dial-up
  • Intelligent field bus, serial device and instrumentation integration

At ICPROE, we take pride in the fact that the highest quality workmanship is one of many consistent qualities throughout all areas of our build services.

ICPROE offers construction services using integrated engineering. What does that mean for you and your project?

To ICPROE it means not just the right choices but the best choices for your project. From concept or specification, through delivery and closeout we deliver.

It means reducing costs while enhancing performance– all without compromising the system integrity.
It means we listen and study. You tell us what you want and we tell you what you need to know.
It means we support porno ita every step of the way from studies and budgeting and procurement through construction.
The highest quality in workmanship is maintained through clear and defined standards and milestones.

Our interface webpage

Do you want to interface laboratory instruments by yourself  without coding by programmers having experiences of instruments interfacing?

Do you want to save your instruments’ test results to personal computers without recording by hand on result sheets ?

• Here, you can download software to interface (data acquisition) between clinical laboratory instruments and Personal computer or Laboratory Information Management System( LIMS, LIS ) Host and it is freeware.
• All Interface software in this page don’t require coding by program language(C, C++, Basic, Pascal, etc). you can establish interfacing instruments without coding.
• It’s designed for end users who have no knowledge of program languages in clinical laboratory, you can make interface protocol of any instrument which supports unidirectional or ASTM interface protocol by yourself  with “step by step procedure”.
• Also you can retrieve your acquisition data from instruments with Microsoft Excel(CSV file), although  you don’t have LIMS.
• I think this software supports above than 80% of clinical laboratory instruments in unidirectional communication, maybe.
• If you have any problem or suggestion, please let me know.(chleeymc@hocitel.net)
ASASI

Jan. 21. 2003 (ver.0.61, Build 1).
• Assistant software to interpret Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test
• Rule-based Expert System.
Yeungnam Interfacer

Jan. 21, 2003. (ver. 0.93, Build 2).
• Interfacing software supporting unidirectional communication
• supports ASTM protocol communication (download and query mode).
• no coding in communication with instruments
• communication with Oracle via ODBC drivers
• List of Instruments tested. (Yeungnam Medical Center and other site)
• supports localization for end user’s languages(partially)
Barcode generator

Jun. 09. 2001 (ver. 0.1).
• prints barcode supporting the popular symbols (EAN-8, EAN-13, Interleaved 2/5, Code 39, Code 128, etc).
Yeungnam Interfacer For ADVIA

Dec. 08, 2001. (ver. 0.6, Build 3).
• Interfacing software for ADVIA 120, Bayer.
• supports unidirectional and bidirectional communication (query mode).
• no coding in communication with ADVIA.
Yeungnam Interfacer For AU Series

Oct. 16, 2002. (ver. 0.61, Build 1).
• Interfacing software for AU Series (AU5400, AU2700, AU600, AU400, AU640), OLYMPUS.
• supports unidirectional and bidirectional communication (mode).
• no coding in interfacing AU Series.
• Reagent’s barcode generator.
Yeungnam Interfacer For Cx

Jul. 24, 2002. (ver. 0.6, Build 5).
• Interfacing software for Synchron Series, BECKMAN
• supports unidirectional and bidirectional communication (download mode)
• no coding in Synchron Series interfacing